You can submit bug reports via https://www.apple.com/feedback/ - the drop down lets you specify that it’s a bug report. Granted it’s a complex system (e.g. FaceTime isn’t listed, I’d file that under iPhone), but you don’t need a developer account.
The site and forms are labeled “feedback”. And the policy that covers the form is “Apple’s Unsolicited Idea Submission Policy”. I probably would not consider that a “bug reporting” process per se. IMO, “Feedback” is something like, “Please make a rose gold MacBook Pro case.”
Obviously the correct way to report bugs is to exploit this one in order to connect to Tim Cook’s phone via FaceTime and whisper the issue repeatedly while he sleeps. I have a difficult time understanding why people find Apple’s processes difficult: they provided the tool and Ms. Thomson simply refused to use it.
I reported bugs at apple.com/feedback. But you won’t get any replies. However I must have sent in enough of them I got an invite to their AppleSeed program (not the public beta). That provides a good bug reporting app with feedback from the developers and also a forum. No developer account needed.
They intentionally want to restrict the number of people submitting bug reports so they don’t get swamped.